Ever heard of the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon?
Well, the chances are that you’ll hear about it again soon.
The Baader-Meinhof phenomenon (also known as frequency illusion) is when you notice something, perhaps something out of the ordinary, like coming across an unusual name, hearing a song, or learning the name of an actor you have never seen before.
Suddenly, that thing you noticed for the first time in your life just yesterday starts appearing from nowhere, both here and there, like some short-term déjà vu.
What’s going on here?
The Obscure Song From the ’80s
Most of us have experienced the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon — I know I have.
I experience it all the time.
And that’s not an exaggeration.
Since I’m not a superstitious person, I’ve always taken for granted that it has something to do with a psychological fallacy or bias — like confirmation bias. 1Confirmation bias is when we hear or see what we want to hear and see. We don’t want to see or listen to things that we don’t seem to register as quickly.
However, confirmation bias, a widely known and well-studied psychological fallacy, doesn’t account for the whole experience of the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon.
Let’s say that I walk by a store, and from within that store, I hear a rather unusual song from the ’80s that I haven’t heard in ages. I used to love it, but I had forgotten about it.
In the following weeks, I hear the song repeatedly — and always by chance. How weird.
Suppose we were to explain these occurrences using the fallacy of confirmation bias alone. In that case, we must conclude that I’ve encountered this relatively rare song from the ’80s all the time, but without consciously noticing it.
But how can that be — especially if the song is relatively obscure?
The Frequency Illusion
According to Stanford linguist professor Arnold Zwicky, who coined the term frequency illusion for this phenomenon in 2006, something else is happening before your confirmation bias kicks in. 2Many would say that Arnold Zwicky is one of the most influential linguists in the United States, if not the world. After receiving his PhD in Linguistics from Stanford in 1955, he began teaching at … Continue reading
When something novel sparks an emotional reaction, your brain starts to scan for whatever it was that you noticed actively. Unconsciously, your brain is actively seeking that song — wherever you go.
How does the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon affect us?
Baader-Meinhof phenomenon made it into the open internet and has become this peculiar phenomenon. It could fuel paranoia and other unhealthy states if you have a mental illness.
But there are positive examples, too.
“In 2019, third-year medical student Kush Purohit wrote a letter to the editor of Academic Radiology to talk about his own experience on the matter. Having just learned of a condition called “bovine aortic arch,” he went on to discover three more cases within the next 24 hours. Purohit suggested that taking advantage of psychological phenomena such as Baader-Meinhof could benefit students of radiology, helping them to learn basic search patterns as well as the skills to identify findings that others may overlook.”
The German Terrorist Group
Why do we call it the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon and not the frequency effect?
A commenter in the St. Paul Pioneer Press online forum used the more popular term Baader-Meinhof phenomenon after hearing about the ultra-left-wing terrorist group Baader-Meinhof Gang, also known as the Red Army Faction (RAF), twice in 24 hours. 3In the 1970s, a radical group called the Baader-Meinhof Gang wreaked havoc in West Germany. Led by Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof, the group sought to bring about drastic social and political … Continue reading
The Baader-Meinhof phenomenon has nothing to do with the terrorist group that wreaked havoc in Germany in the ’70s. One could make the case that it’s not ideal to reference a group of terrorists. The phenomenon could have as well have been named anything else. But it stuck.
Subconscious Information Processing
So, what about that obscure song from the ’80s, then?
Was I hearing that song all the time — only without noticing it?
Well, yes and no.
First, your brain is likely scanning for many recently discovered novelties simultaneously.
Maybe you’ve encountered several hundred potential Baader-Meinhof phenomenons in the last seven days. Still, you only encounter one or two of these instances again in the coming seven days. We subconsciously omit interests where the effect won’t kick in for us.
The Butterfly Effect
Secondly, we live in an interconnected society. We shouldn’t underestimate the chaotic network effects.
Maybe many people in your area heard that same song on the radio that day. Maybe lots of them reacted in the same way I did.
There’s a possibility that your initial feeling indeed is right; a tiny spark could lead to a butterfly effect and increase the likelihood of you encountering the same thing soon again due to this spreading chain of events. 4We all get caught by cookies while searching for various web pages. And we’ve crossed paths on this particular web page, right? Without noticing it, algorithms might amplify the Baader-Meinhof … Continue reading
I’m not suggesting that you hear about the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon ever again.
By reading this blog post, I’m only suggesting that the statistical chance might have gotten a tiny bit bigger for you.
Add a significant number of subconscious impressions daily, some selective attention, and then a good portion of confirmation bias and voilà.
The Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon
Remember the scientist who coined the term frequency illusion for this term, Arnold Zwicky?
He noticed that people who are above-average interested in language are prone to having these experiences.
Regarding how often I’ve experienced this phenomenon myself, maybe I should add that I didn’t just study public relations at the university:
I did study linguistics at the university. Maybe I’m especially primed for this effect.
|Confirmation bias is when we hear or see what we want to hear and see. We don’t want to see or listen to things that we don’t seem to register as quickly.|
|Many would say that Arnold Zwicky is one of the most influential linguists in the United States, if not the world. After receiving his PhD in Linguistics from Stanford in 1955, he began teaching at UC Berkeley, where he remained for many years. He’s well known for his work in syntactic and semantics. His research interests include English syntax, pragmatics, semantics, phonology, morphology, and syntax-phonology interface.|
|In the 1970s, a radical group called the Baader-Meinhof Gang wreaked havoc in West Germany. Led by Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof, the group sought to bring about drastic social and political changes, and they targeted prominent figures in society and government officials. The gang staged kidnappings, assassinations, bombings and bank robberies, even planting bombs so powerful they would flatten entire city blocks.|
|We all get caught by cookies while searching for various web pages. And we’ve crossed paths on this particular web page, right? Without noticing it, algorithms might amplify the Baader-Meinhof effect all the time. But if you want to make sure, you can always do what I did and follow the Baader-Meinhof Facebook page.|